Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act its Regulations

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    Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act its Regulations

    The Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act of 2000 (PCMLTFA) facilitates combatting the laundering of proceeds of crime and the financing of terrorist activities, as well as to establish the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (‘FINTRAC’)The PCMLTFA is supplemented by five regulations, namely the Cross-Border Currency and Monetary Instruments Reporting Regulations, the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Suspicious Transaction Reporting Regulations, the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Regulations, the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Registration Regulations, and the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Administrative Monetary Penalties Regulations. 

    Last Updated: July 30, 2019


  • The PCMLTFA requires (Article 3 PCMLTFA): 

    • establishing record keeping and client identification requirements for financial services providers and other persons or entities that engage in businesses, professions or activities that are susceptible to being used for money laundering or the financing of terrorist activities; 
    • reporting of suspicious financial transactions and of cross-border movements of currency and monetary instruments; and 
    • establishing an agency that is responsible for ensuring compliance and dealing with reported and other information. 

    Moreover, the PCMLTFA outlines, in Article 36, the circumstances under which information regarding money-laundering or terrorist activities may be disclosed to a police force, FINTRAC or to the Canada Revenue Agency (‘CRA’). Furthermore, FINTRAC may disclose designated information to an institution or agency of a foreign state or of an international organisation that has powers and duties similar to those of FINTRAC, if FINTRAC has reasonable grounds to suspect that the information would be relevant to the investigation or prosecution of a money laundering offence or a terrorist activity financing offence, and the Minister of Finance has entered into an agreement with a foreign state or international organisation regarding the exchange of such information (Article 56.1 of the PCMLTFA).  

    Article 38 of the PCMLTFA outlines, that the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness may, with the consent of the Minister of Finance, enter into an agreement or arrangement in writing with the government of a foreign state, or an institution or agency of that state, that has similar reporting requirements for the exchange of information. 

    In addition to this, FINTRAC has issued Guidance on the Risk-Based Approach to Combatting Money-Laundering and Terrorist Financing (‘ML/TF’) (‘the Guidance’), which outlines a risk-based approach (‘RBA’) requiring reporting entities to conduct assessments of their exposure to ML/TF risks using a number of prescribed criteria. In particular, compliance regimes of reporting entities must include: 

    • the appointment of a compliance officer; 
    • the development and application of compliance policies and procedures which must be written and kept up to date; 
    • an assessment and the documentation of risks related to ML/TF, as well as the documentation and implementation of mitigation measures to deal with those risks; 
    • an ongoing compliance training program if there are employees, agents, or other individuals authorised to act on behalf of the entity; and 
    • a review of compliance policies and procedures to test their effectiveness. 

    The Guidance further outlines six steps in carrying out such risk assessments 

    In addition to the Guidance, FINTRAC has issued a guideline on Compliance Programme Requirements under the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (PCMLTFA) and Associated Regulations (the Compliance Programme Requirements’) which are applicable to all individuals and entities subject to the PCMLTFA, and which mirror the requirements provided by the Guidance and listed above. The Compliance Programme Requirements, in outlining risk assessments, provides guidance on determinative factors for the complexity of the assessment, how to document the assessment, and enhanced measures to mitigate high risks. 

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